|William and Mary|
James II was attempting to grant freedom of religion to non-Anglicans, among other things, which made him suspicious. When his second wife had their son in 1688, rumors flew that the baby was not the queen's son, but a random child smuggled into the palace.
James II got kicked off the throne and his daughter and her husband took over in the Glorious Revolution; "Glorious" because there was no bloodshed.
In 1689, Parliament passed The Declaration of Right, which decreed that since James II "abandoned" his throne, clearly his daughter and her husband were best for the job. William would get to be King even after Mary's death and later, this declaration was extended to exclude James II, his Catholic heirs, then all Catholics from the British throne.
James II spent some time fighting back, actually, mostly in Ireland, whose Parliament, separate from England's and Scotland's, still considered James the rightful king. Catholics flocked to James' army and William, naturally, didn't want his pesky father-in-law causing trouble. They fought a number of battles in Ireland, which resulted in James losing and William not only defending his new crown, but oppressing the Irish under Protestant rule for the next several centuries.
(Have you ever heard of the Orangemen? They're members of the Orange Order, a very sectarian Protestant organization mainly based in Northern Ireland (but also Scotland). They wear lots of orange and march through Catholic parts of Belfast, for instance, which instigated a lot of violence back during The Troubles in Ireland because the Orangemen, who march every year and don't feel the need to change their parade routes, are seen as supremacists. They're named after William of Orange--William, King of England.)
Back to the main story:
James loses, lives out his life in France, presumably drinking a lot. I mean, wouldn't you, if you'd been kicked off a throne?
James' Catholic son James Francis Edward Stuart, grows up in France.
JFE declares himself King of England and Scotland. The Catholic countries recognize him as king. So now he needs to take over the throne by force, yeah?
This is around 1714. Queen Anne, James II's younger daughter, is Queen of England and Scotland. Queen Anne had 17 pregnancies, the only child of these pregnancies to survive childhood had died, so there's no direct heir to the throne and you can imagine that Queen Anne was pretty ill. She died in 1714 and the next king is...
Nope. We go all the way back to James I of England (father of the king that was beheaded) and down another of his children's lines to George, the Elector of Hanover, who doesn't speak English, but at least he's Protestant!
(Note: Parliament passed a law called The Act of Settlement in 1701, which governs how the succession to the throne goes. If you're Catholic or marry a Catholic, you're not eligible to be in the line of succession. This is the Act that settled the throne on George I and his descendants.)
In 1715, some Scottish nobles, who didn't like George, raised an army in Scotland for JFE. Because people actually learned Latin back then, they called themselves Jacobites, after Jacobus, Latin for "James."
But this army is defeated and nobody's really excited about JFE, so nothing really happens after the Jacobite Rising of 1715. JFE returns to France, then spends the rest of his life in Rome, calling himself the Old Pretender.
|Prince Charles Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie"|
Bonnie Prince Charlie goes to Paris, trying to woo his French king cousin to give him a decent position in the army or something--plus money and an army to invade Britain. But while he's in Paris, Prince Charlie spends a lot of time drinking and having affairs.
And that is where I'll end this random history lesson, because the rest of it is covered in Dragonfly in Amber and I promised not to spoil anything for my friend.
Random tidbit: The Outlander theme song is a variation on "The Skye Boat Song," a poem about Bonnie Prince Charlie escaping mainland Scotland to get to the Isle of Skye after Culloden.